Hibernate ORM is a component/library providing Object/Relational Mapping (ORM) support to applications and other components/libraries. It is also provides an implementation of the JPA specification, which is the standardized Java specification for ORM. See Hibernate.org for additional information.
Hibernate alternatives and similar libraries
Based on the "ORM" category.
Alternatively, view Hibernate alternatives based on common mentions on social networks and blogs.
8.0 8.4 Hibernate VS Spring Data JPASimplifies the development of creating a JPA-based data access layer.
4.5 4.0 Hibernate VS ReladomoReladomo is an enterprise grade object-relational mapping framework for Java.
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Hibernate ORM is a library providing Object/Relational Mapping (ORM) support to applications, libraries, and frameworks.
It also provides an implementation of the JPA specification, which is the standard Java specification for ORM.
This is the repository of its source code: see Hibernate.org for additional information.
Building from sources
The build requires a Java 8 JDK as JAVA_HOME.
Hibernate uses Gradle as its build tool. See the Gradle Primer section below if you are new to Gradle.
Contributors should read the [Contributing Guide](CONTRIBUTING.md).
Check out the Getting Started section in CONTRIBUTING.md for getting started working on Hibernate source.
Hibernate makes use of Jenkins for its CI needs. The project is built continuous on each push to the upstream repository. Overall there are a few different jobs, all of which can be seen at http://ci.hibernate.org/view/ORM/
This section describes some of the basics developers and contributors new to Gradle might need to know to get productive quickly. The Gradle documentation is very well done; 2 in particular that are indispensable:
- Gradle User Guide is a typical user guide in that it follows a topical approach to describing all of the capabilities of Gradle.
- Gradle DSL Guide is unique and excellent in quickly getting up to speed on certain aspects of Gradle.
Using the Gradle Wrapper
For contributors who do not otherwise use Gradle and do not want to install it, Gradle offers a very cool
feature called the wrapper. It lets you run Gradle builds without a previously installed Gradle distro in
a zero-conf manner. Hibernate configures the Gradle wrapper for you. If you would rather use the wrapper and
not install Gradle (or to make sure you use the version of Gradle intended for older builds) you would just use
gradlew.bat) rather than
gradle.bat) in the following discussions.
gradlew is only available in the project's root dir, so depending on your working directory you may
need to adjust the path to
gradlew as well.
Examples use the
gradle syntax, but just swap
gradlew (properly relative) for
gradle if you wish to use
Another reason to use
gradlew is that it uses the exact version of Gradle that the build is defined to work with.
Gradle uses the concept of build tasks (equivalent to Ant targets or Maven phases/goals). You can get a list of available tasks via
To execute a task across all modules, simply perform that task from the root directory. Gradle will visit each sub-project and execute that task if the sub-project defines it. To execute a task in a specific module you can either:
cdinto that module directory and execute the task
- name the "task path". For example, to run the tests for the hibernate-core module from the root directory you could say
Common Java related tasks
- build - Assembles (jars) and tests this project
- buildDependents - Assembles and tests this project and all projects that depend on it. So think of running this in hibernate-core, Gradle would assemble and test hibernate-core as well as hibernate-envers (because envers depends on core)
- classes - Compiles the main classes
- testClasses - Compiles the test classes
- compile (Hibernate addition) - Performs all compilation tasks including staging resources from both main and test
- jar - Generates a jar archive with all the compiled classes
- test - Runs the tests
- publish - Think Maven deploy
- publishToMavenLocal - Installs the project jar to your local maven cache (aka ~/.m2/repository). Note that Gradle never uses this, but it can be useful for testing your build with other local Maven-based builds.
- eclipse - Generates an Eclipse project
- idea - Generates an IntelliJ/IDEA project (although the preferred approach is to use IntelliJ's Gradle import).
- clean - Cleans the build directory
Testing and databases
Testing against a specific database can be achieved in 2 different ways:
Using the "Matrix Testing Plugin" for Gradle.
The Hibernate build defines several database testing "profiles" in
profiles can be activated by name using the
db build property which can be passed either as
a JVM system prop (
-D) or as a Gradle project property (
-P). Examples below use the Gradle
project property approach.
gradle clean build -Pdb=pgsql
To run a test from your IDE, you need to ensure the property expansions happen. Use the following command:
gradle clean compile -Pdb=pgsql
NOTE: If you are running tests against a JDBC driver that is not available via Maven central be sure to add these drivers to your local Maven repo cache (~/.m2/repository) or (better) add it to a personal Maven repo server
Running database-specific tests from the IDE using "profiles"
You can run any test on any particular database that is configured in a
All you have to do is run the following command:
gradlew setDataBase -Pdb=pgsql
or you can use the shortcut version:
gradlew sDB -Pdb=pgsql
You can do this from the module which you are interested in testing or from the
hibernate-orm root folder.
Afterward, just pick any test from the IDE and run it as usual. Hibernate will pick the database configuration from the
file that was set up by the
setDataBase Gradle task.
Starting test databases locally as docker containers
You don't have to install all databases locally to be able to test against them in case you have docker available.
docker_db.sh allows you to start a pre-configured database which can be used for testing.
All you have to do is run the following command:
omitting the argument will print a list of possible options.
When the database is properly started, you can run tests with special profiles that are suffixed with
pgsql_ci for PostgreSQL. By using the system property
dbHost you can configure the IP address of your docker host.
The command for running tests could look like the following:
gradlew test -Pdb=pgsql_ci "-DdbHost=192.168.99.100"