Kite is a collection of reactive application messaging libraries that aim at providing high level abstractions for PubSub, RPC and public API definitions with minimal dependencies. Both PubSub and RPC (of which API defintion is a subset) provide a clean separation between the service and message definition, arguments/result/message (de)serialization and actual transport layer. The latter two injectable at the application wiring stage making client ans server implementations agnostic to serialization and transport and relying on POJO service and message defintions only.

Programming language: Java
License: MIT License
Tags: Distributed Applications     Messaging     API     RPC     PubSub     Vertx     AMQP    

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kite - service-based RPC, public APIs and PubSub in Java

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kite is a collection of reactive application messaging libraries that aim at providing high level abstractions for PubSub, RPC and public API definitions with minimal dependencies. Both PubSub and RPC (of which API defintion is a subset) provide a clean separation between the service and message definition, arguments/result/message (de)serialization and actual transport layer. The latter two injectable at the application wiring stage making client ans server implementations agnostic to serialization and transport and relying on POJO service and message defintions only.

All interfaces and implementations are fully reactive including the RPC and (de)serialization.

The collections consist of the following production-ready libraries (released to jcenter):

  • [x] kite -- the core defintion library. Provides @Service, @Name, Context as well as Serializer and Deserializer interfaces;
  • [x] kite-rpc -- the RPC and public API implementation with pluggable serialization and transport. Provides the ServiceFactory interface and implementation to obtain client side service proxies, the ServiceExporter interface and implementation to export service implementation on the server side to a given transport and the ServiceInvoker interface used in conjuncion with the given transport to construct instances of ServiceFactory. Plain Java 8 w/o further dependencies;
  • [x] kite-gson -- the (default) implementation of JSON (de)serialization with `Gson.
  • [x] kite-rpc-vertx -- the Vert.x based HTTP transport layer for the client and server sides. Provides HttpServiceInvoker that implements ServiceInvoker over HTTP(S) and HttpServiceExporter that exports service implementations bound to one or a few generic ServiceExporters as HTTPS POST endpoints;

The following libraries are under development or not yet ready for production (only available as source from GitHub, not released to jcenter):

  • [ ] kite-fasterxml -- a JSON (de)serializer implementation based on the FasterXML ObjectMapper rather than Gson. The implementation has two outstanding gaps: enum name-based deserialzation does not work without a toString method, encodings other than UTF-8 are not supported for strings;
  • [x] kite-rpc-amqp -- a provisional RPC implementation for the RabbitMQ variant of AMQP. The implementation is fully functional, however, more work needs to be done on the reconnection and parameter tuning;
  • [x] kite-rpc-jms -- a provisional RPC implementation for the JMS1.1. The integration test is performed with ActiveMQ.
  • [ ] kite-pubsub -- under development, not yet publicly available (ETA March 2018);
  • [ ] kite-pubsub-vertx -- under development, not yet publicly available (ETA April 2018);
  • [ ] kite-pubsub-amqp -- under development, not yet publicly available (ETA April 2018);
  • [ ] kite-pubsub-vertx -- under development, not yet publicly available (ETA March 2018);

Obtaining the library

Get it with gradle:


dependencies {
  // add these to inject implementation when wiring up

Or download the jars directly from the jcenter repository.

Building and testing

In order to run all integration tests a rabbitmq broker is expected to be running on localhost:5672 using the default guest account. The easiest way to get it deployed is by using the official rabbitmq alpine docker image (this is exactly what the Travis CI deployment script is doing):

docker run -it -p 5672:5672 rabbitmq:alpine

Vert.x and ActiveMQ integration tests will start their server/broker from within the corresponding tests. Given a deployed rabbitmq broker one can build, test and deploy the binaries to a local Maven repository for reuse with (drop tasks which you do not want to execute):

./gradlew clean build test integration coverage install

Without the rabbitmq installed, add --continue to continue upon encounterring a failed test.

RPC and public APIs

APIs are defined by declaring public interfaces annotated with @io.teris.kite.Service. In order to enable predictable and user-friend payload definition for public APIs, service method arguments must also be annotated with @io.teris.kite.Name. Java compiler by default erases actual argument names and to have no dependency on compiler settings the @Name annotaton has to be used instead.

The two annotations also control the way invocation routes are composed yielding a route per method of each service. The routes are dot-separated lower-case strings that serve as routing keys for AMQP, message filters for JMS or HTTP URIs having substituted dots for forward slashes).

The library support two types of service methods. Asynchronous methods return a CompletableFuture of Void or a type extending Serializable. Synchronous methods return an instance of a type extending Serializable directly, or can be declared void.

Internally the library is fully reactive and will benefit from non-blocking execution of the implementations where possible.

Important: any service method returning a CompletableFuture must not block in the implementation as the library will not spawn a thread for such methods, synchronous methods are always executed via ExecutorService even if they are returning void and are internally non blocking.

Service method arguments must take at least one argument, io.teris.rpc.Context, that serves to pass request headers (bi-directionally). Further arguments must explicitly implement Serializable and be concrete classes. The same requirement is applied to generic types, arrays and varargs, all of which are supported as concrete serializable types. Wildcards in generic are not supported.

All method arguments after the context, must be annotated with @io.teris.kite.Name even if the compiler options -parameters is on.

Services are assumed to accept and return serializable POJOs, therefore interfaces are not supported, both as arguments and as return types (this is the case even for standard collections, of which the interfaces are in fact not serializable even though most JSON deserializers support them).

The compliance of the declaration to above rules is checked on the server side within the ServiceExporter builder when attaching services for export. On the client side, it is checked when obtaining a proxy instance from the factory. Further checks are performed during the invocation. Any exception in such a check will result in a client side exception or an exceptionally completed future.

For plain HTTP clients contacting the public API declared using the above method, technical errors will result in HTTP500, authentication errors in HTTP403 and all busines errors (exceptions during the service implementation invocation) in HTTP200 with an error field in the payload.

The following defines a service with two endpoints, a synchronous and an asynchronous ones:

package com.company.api;

public interface DataService {

    CompletableFuture<Void> upload(Context context, @Name("data") HashMap<String, Double> data);

    Double download(Context context, @Name("key") String key);

Each service method receives an independent route. By default it is composed from the package name, service class name (w/o the Service suffix) and method name, all lower case and dot-separated.

There is a mechanism to override these defaults redefining the routes fully or partially. The @Service annotation takes two optional arguements replace (what to replace in the default route) and value (what to replace it for). By default nothing is replaced. If only replace is provided, the matching part will be removed (replaced with nothing). If only the value is provided, the fully route will be replaced with ├Čt. Thus, the above declaration yields the following routes, api.data.upload and api.data.download, respectively. The @Name annotation applied to a method allows to fully replace the last part of the route (the method name) with a new one. E.g. @Name("import") void importPrices(... will be exported as {prefix}.import.

Public inner interfaces are fully supported for service declaration and their holder class name becomes a part of the route (preserving the Service suffix on the holder if any).

All provided transport implementations are aware of those route definitions and will automatically expose service endpoints at the server side and route to the correct ones on the client. For the HTTP implementation an optional prefix can be added to the URI on both server and client sides.

The client side ServiceFactory and the server sie ServiceExporter will validate method/service declaration before the invocation and at the time of binding a service implementation.

Client-side invocation

Service proxy instances are obtained from an instance of ServiceFactory, which is parametrized using an instance of Serializer that transfers service method arguments into a byte array and a transport specific client side instance of ServiceInvoker. Content type specific deserializers can additionally be registered for turning the response byte array into a response structure based on the reported content type. Assuming the content type of the response is the same as of the request, the default deserializer is provided by the registered serializer.

ServiceFactory instances can be constructed for example in the following manner:

ServiceFactory factory = ServiceFactory.invoker(httpServiceInvoker)
    .deserializer("application/json", fasterXmlDeserializer)
    .uidGenerator(() -> UUID.randomUUID().toString())

The only two required arguments are the invoker and serializer though:

ServiceFactory factory = ServiceFactory.invoker(httpServiceInvoker)

Service proxies are then obtained by calling newInstance on the factory:

DataService dataService = factory.newInstance(DataService.class);

Double value = dataService.download(new Context(), "key");

Transport and server-side invocation

Transport implementations must provide a client side ServiceInvoker implementation and a server side service exporter that accept instances of ServiceExporter and export transport specific endpoints for each route found in each service exporter.

Both interfaces, although not related by any parent-child relation, provide the following same method that is central for the bi-directional data flow:

CompletableFuture<Entry<Context, byte[]>> call(@Nonnull String route, @Nonnull Context context, @Nullable byte[] data);

Invoking proxies first compose the method route; then copy the context and put new unique request Id and the correct content type there; collect method arguments and serialize them into byte arrays; finally, the three values are passed into a transport specific instance of ServiceInvoker for sending it to the server (directly or via some sort of broker or reverse proxy). The future is completed when the transport receives a corresponding response from the server. In case of HTTP implementation the HTTP request itself is synchronous and is kept open for the duration of execution. JMS and AMQP implementations are fully asynchrnous and are based on message publishing on a shared corrlation Id.

The transport layer transfers the data and the context (in form of request/message headers) to the destination route (which for protocol compatibility may be transformed into a URI on a given host/port or anything else). The server side transport receives the request/message and passes its route, headers and data into an instance of ServiceExporter. Based on the route, the latter finds the matching service implementation instance and method to call, deserializes the data, creates a new context from the headers and invokes the method.

The same process is repeated in reverse for the response.

Using the vert.x HTTP implementation and the GSON serializer, the fully configured client side service factory that invokes service methods over HTTP can be instantiated as follows (adding further optional parameters for completeness):

HttpClient httpClient = Vertx.vertx().createHttpClient(new HttpClientOptions()

ServiceInvoker invoker = HttpServiceInvoker.httpClient(httpClient).build();

ServiceFactory factory = ServiceFactory.invoker(invoker)

The server side, correspondingly:

ServiceExporter exporter1 = ServiceExporter.serializer(JsonSerializer.builder().build())
    .export(DataService1.class, new DataService1Impl(dataServiceDependency))
    .export(DataService2.class, new DataService2Impl(dataServiceDependency));

ServiceExporter exporter2 = ServiceExporter.serializer(JsonSerializer.builder().build())
    .export(OtherService.class, new OtherServiceImpl(otherServiceDependency));

HttpServiceExporter httpExporter = HttpServiceExporter.router(Vertx.vertx())


Here, the exporter1 and exporter2 are exported via the same HttpServiceExporter, but each define a different authenticating preprocessor (e.g. two different authentication methods).

Exception thrown during the invocation process are wrapped into io.teris.kite.rpc.InvocationException or io.teris.kite.rpc.BusinessExcpeption. Their constructors are not publicly exported and can only be used from within the RPC mechanism. These exceptions are fully transportable over the serialization mechanism and are rethrown on the client side with the original stack trace. If the client is a non-library component, e.g. a CURL HTTP request to the public API, these excpetions are transformed in the payload field "exception" (assuming JSON payload) and additionally the field "errorMessage" contains the actual text message only. The HTTP status code is in this case < 400.

Exceptions occurring in the preprocessors or during the invocation processing, but not related to service definition correctness, deserialization or business logic, are delivered via different means (that is not serialized in the payload) and are transport specific. The following cases are supported:

  • a public AuthenticationException is delivered as a text message and is rethrown on the client side as AuthenticationException. For HTTP it is signalled by HTTP403;
  • a server-side NotFoundException is delivered as a text message and is rethrown on the client side as NotFoundException. Currently it is only implemented by the HTTP transport and is signlled by HTTP404;
  • other exceptions are delivered as a text message and are rethrown on the client side as TechnicalException. For HTTP they are signalled by HTTP500.

It is essential to note that no checked exceptions will cross the remote invocation boundary and all runtime exceptions will descend from InvocationException or BusinessException. This is true even for the case when the service declares and throws an exception of a particular type. The reason for this is to guarantee that exceptions are always deserializable on the client side without futher dependencies!

Generic preprocessing (and authentication)

The service exporter allows for the registration of a series of preprocessors that are executed before dispatching to the actual service implementation. Preprocessors are functions that satisfy the following declaration and must be non-blocking:

BiFunction<Context, Entry<String, byte[]>, CompletableFuture<Context>>

Each preprocessor asynchronously receives the context, the route and raw data from the previous iteration and can use them to generate new values for the context and/or validate permissions. The pair of the route and incoming data is passed into every preprocesor along with the evolving context.

The preprocessors are executed sequentially (as a next completion stage) in the order of their registration on the exporter. Any preprocessor completing exceptionally will result in aborting the chain and responding to the original request before the actual method call can be made. With one exception all exceptions will be rethrown on the client side as TechnicalException using the original exception message.

One can use preprocessor to implement request authentication and authorisation. It is advisable to throw an AuthenticationException in case of authentication errors in this case as they have a special treatment in the transport.

Public APIs

Using the provided GSON-based serializer and the vert.x HTTP transport layer implementation, every service becomes an API that has an easily deductable structure:

  • all requests use the POST method
  • the URI is defined by the service method route (substituting . for /) with an optional prefix
  • context is written as is into request headers, returning context into response headers
  • the request payload is a JSON object with attributes being method arguments as they are named in the definition
  • the response is HTTP200 with JSON payload containing the "payload" field of the same type as method return type (or null if void or CompletableFuture<Void>)
  • in case of BusinessException or TechnicalException the response is HTTP200 with JSON payload containing a non-null "errorMessage" (and "exception") field
  • in case of any other exception the response is one of HTTP403, HTTP404, HTTP500 or other HTTP error status codes as generated by the generic HTTP protocol.

For example, the API endpoint for the DataService.download method declared above will be defined as follows:

    POST /api/data/download
    HEADERS: X-Request-Id, Content-Type + context
    JSON {
        "key": <string>

And the corresponding response:

    CODE: 200
    HEADERS: (copied from response, plus added in the invocation)
    JSON {
        "payload": <double or null on error>,
        "exception": <serialized io.teris.rpc.BusinessException/InvocationException with original stack, or null>,
        "errorMessage": <exception message duplicated, or null>

Unless the client is Java and is using this library to consume the response, the response payload for CompletableFuture<MyType> and for MyType will be identical with MyType data under the payload field.

Service requests that contain no arguments beside Context will be performed with an empty request body. Service responses that respond to void or CompletableFuture<Void> and contain no exception will contain an empty response body. Both are treated as normal, non-erroneous cases.

Serialization in RPC and PubSub

Serialization and deserialization are intergral parts of remote messaging. In the RPC the client serializes arguments of outgoing requests and deserializes incoming results while the server deserializes incoming requests and serializes outgoing responses. In PubSub the publisher serializes the message while the subscriber deserializes it.

Serialization is pluggable via instances implementing the io.teris.kite.Serializer

<CT extends Serializable> CompletableFuture<byte[]> serialize(@Nonnull CT value);

and io.teris.kite.Deserializer interfaces

<CT extends Serializable> CompletableFuture<CT> deserialize(@Nonnull byte[] data, @Nonnull Class<CT> clazz);

<CT extends Serializable> CompletableFuture<CT> deserialize(@Nonnull byte[] data, @Nonnull Type type);

For the case of multiple registered deserializers, the content type transmitted in context (or in the header) is used to decide which deserializer to use. Serialization, on the other hand, is only possible with one and the same serialize registered at the time of constructing the trasport element.

Important: for RPC custom deserializers must satisfy a requirements to deliver a fully deserializable slice of the original or transformed byte array for every explicit Serializable declaration. This is the only exception from the response type: wherever it contains the Serializable interface the original slice of byte array will be delivered. This functionality is used to deserialize RPC service method arguments when they arrive on the server side. The structure of arguments is dynamic and cannot be described by a specific class (even if all the individual element types are known at runtime), so the deserialization is performed into a map of argument name to Serializable and then every argument is deserialized into its concrete type independently.

License and copyright

Copyright (c) 2017-2018. Oleg Sklyar and teris.io. All rights reserved. MIT license applies

*Note that all licence references and agreements mentioned in the kite README section above are relevant to that project's source code only.