Programming language: Java
License: GNU General Public License v3.0 or later
Tags: Logging     Projects    
Latest version: v2.1.1

Echopraxia alternatives and similar libraries

Based on the "Logging" category.
Alternatively, view echopraxia alternatives based on common mentions on social networks and blogs.

Do you think we are missing an alternative of Echopraxia or a related project?

Add another 'Logging' Library


<!---freshmark shields output = [ link(shield('mvnrepository', 'mvnrepository', '{{group}}', 'blue'), 'https://mvnrepository.com/artifact/{{group}}'), link(shield('License Apache', 'license', 'Apache', 'blue'), 'https://tldrlegal.com/license/apache-license-2.0-(apache-2.0)'), ].join('\n') --> mvnrepository License Apache <!---freshmark /shields -->


Echopraxia is a Java logging API designed around structured logging, rich context, and conditional logging. There are Logback and Log4J2 implementations, but Echopraxia's API is completely dependency-free, meaning it can be implemented with any logging API, i.e. jboss-logging, JUL, JEP 264, or even directly.

Echopraxia is a sequel to the Scala logging API Blindsight, hence the name: "Echopraxia is the involuntary repetition or imitation of an observed action."

Echopraxia is based around several main concepts that build and leverage on each other:

  • Structured Logging (API based around structured fields and values)
  • Contextual Logging (API based around building state in loggers)
  • Conditions (API based around context-aware functions and dynamic scripting)
  • Semantic Logging (API based around typed arguments)
  • Fluent Logging (API based around log entry builder)
  • Filters (pipeline for adding fields and conditions to loggers)

Although Echopraxia is tied on the backend to an implementation, it is designed to hide implementation details from you, just as SLF4J hides the details of the logging implementation. For example, logstash-logback-encoder provides Markers or StructuredArguments, but you will not see them in the API. Instead, Echopraxia works with independent Field and Value objects that are converted by a CoreLogger provided by an implementation LogstashCoreLogger which converts fields into StructuredArguments on the backend.

Please see the blog posts for more background on logging stuff.


Simple examples and integrations with dropwizard metrics and OSHI are available at echopraxia-examples.

For a web application example, see this Spring Boot Project.

Statement of Intent

Echopraxia is not a replacement for SLF4J. It is not an attempt to compete with Log4J2 API, JUL, commons-logging for the title of "one true logging API" and restart the logging mess. SLF4J won that fight a long time ago.

Echopraxia is a structured logging API. It is an appropriate solution when you control the logging implementation and have decided you're going to do structured logging, e.g. a web application where you've decided to use logstash-logback-encoder already.

SLF4J is an appropriate solution when you do not control the logging output, e.g. in an open-source library that could be used in arbitrary situations by anybody.


Echopraxia is best described as a specialization or augmentation for application code -- as you're building framework support code for your application and build up your domain objects, you can write custom field builders, then log everywhere in your application with a consistent schema.

Why Structured Logging?

Structured logging enables logs to be queried as semi-structured data. There are other structured logging frameworks, like Structlog (Python), Ruby-Cabin (Ruby), Logrus (Go), and Serilog (C#).

Ruby-Cabin has the best take on this:

Structured data means you don't need crazy regular expression skills to make sense of logs.

You can read more about structured logging here.

Why Conditions?

Conditions address the challenge of "whether-to-log", which concerns with dynamically adjusting the degree of logging in response to the runtime requirements. A statement is only logged if it passes the condition associated with it.

Conditions can leverage the data exposed by structured logging. For example, here's a debug statement that only logs if the remote address is localhost:

Condition isLocalhost = (level, ctx) -> ctx
    .map(s -> Objects.equals(s, ""))
logger.debug(isLocalhost, "address is {}", fb -> fb.string("request_remote_addr", addr));

This makes targeted logging far more powerful, because diagnostic logging is no longer an "all or nothing" proposition -- conditions can dynamically filter what is logged, creating a "control plane" for logging. A proof of concept of dynamic debug logging using Echopraxia is here .

A Comprehensive Survey of Logging in Software and The Bones of the System: A Study of Logging and Telemetry at Microsoft are great discussions of the implication of being able to adjust logging conditions at runtime.

Scala API

There is a Scala API available at https://github.com/tersesystems/echopraxia-plusscala.


Benchmarks are available at [BENCHMARKS.md](BENCHMARKS.md).

Please be aware that how fast and how much you can log is dramatically impacted by your use of an asynchronous appender, your available I/O, your storage, and your ability to manage and process logs.


There is a Logback implementation based around logstash-logback-encoder. This library does not provide a front end logger API, so you must pick (or create) one yourself, i.e. normal, async, fluent, or semantic.




implementation "com.tersesystems.echopraxia:logstash:<VERSION>" 


There is a Log4J implementation that works with the JSON Template Layout. This provides a core logger implementation but does not provide a user visible logging API.




implementation "com.tersesystems.echopraxia:log4j:<VERSION>" 

You will need to integrate the com.tersesystems.echopraxia.log4j.layout package into your log4j2.xml file, e.g. by using the packages attribute, and add an EventTemplateAdditionalField element:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<Configuration status="WARN" packages="com.tersesystems.echopraxia.log4j.layout">
        <Console name="Console" target="SYSTEM_OUT" follow="true">
            <JsonTemplateLayout eventTemplateUri="classpath:LogstashJsonEventLayoutV1.json">
                        value='{"$resolver": "echopraxiaFields"}'/>
        <Root level="info">
            <AppenderRef ref="Console" />

If you want to separate the context fields from the argument fields, you can define them separately:

<JsonTemplateLayout eventTemplateUri="classpath:LogstashJsonEventLayoutV1.json">
            value='{"$resolver": "echopraxiaArgumentFields"}'/>
            value='{"$resolver": "echopraxiaContextFields"}'/>

Unfortunately, I don't know of a way to "flatten" fields so that they show up on the root object instead of under an additional field. If you know how to do this, let me know!

Basic Usage

For most, you will be working with the basic logger, which uses a pluggable FieldBuilder. The logger API is a separate dependency -- if you want, you can easily create your own custom logger, so the logger is not packaged with the API.




implementation "com.tersesystems.echopraxia:logger:<VERSION>" 

Add the import:

import com.tersesystems.echopraxia.*;

First you define a logger (usually in a controller or singleton -- getClass() is particularly useful for abstract controllers):

final Logger<?> basicLogger = LoggerFactory.getLogger(getClass());

Logging simple messages and exceptions are done as in SLF4J:

try {
  basicLogger.info("Simple message");
} catch (Exception e) {
  basicLogger.error("Error message", e);  

However, when you log arguments, you pass a function which provides you with a field builder and returns a FieldBuilderResult -- a Field is a FieldBuilderResult, so you can do:

basicLogger.info("Message name {}", fb -> fb.string("name", "value"));

If you are returning multiple fields, then using fb.list will return a FieldBuilderResult:

basicLogger.info("Message name {} age {}", fb -> fb.list(
  fb.string("name", "value"),
  fb.number("age", 13)

And fb.list can take many inputs as needed, for example a stream:

basicLogger.info("Message name {}", fb -> {
  Stream<Field> fieldStream = ...;

You can log multiple arguments and include the exception if you want the stack trace:

basicLogger.info("Message name {}", fb -> fb.list(
  fb.string("name", "value"),

In older versions, fb.only() was required to convert a Field -- this is no longer required, but a FieldBuilderWithOnly interface is available to maintain those methods.

Note that unlike SLF4J, you don't have to worry about including the exception as an argument "swallowing" the stacktrace. If an exception is present, it's always applied to the underlying logger.

So far so good. But logging strings and numbers can get tedious. Let's go into custom field builders.

Custom Field Builders

Echopraxia lets you specify custom field builders whenever you want to log domain objects:

import com.tersesystems.echopraxia.api.*;

public class BuilderWithDate implements FieldBuilder {
  private BuilderWithDate() {}
  public static final BuilderWithDate instance = new BuilderWithDate();

  // Renders a date as an ISO 8601 string.
  public Value.StringValue dateValue(Date date) {
    return Value.string(DateTimeFormatter.ISO_INSTANT.format(date.toInstant()));

  public Field date(String name, Date date) {
    return value(name, dateValue(date));

And now you can render a date automatically:

Logger<BuilderWithDate> dateLogger = basicLogger.withFieldBuilder(BuilderWithDate.instance);
dateLogger.info("Date {}", fb -> fb.date("creation_date", new Date()));

This also applies to more complex objects. In the custom field builder example, the Person class is rendered using a custom field builder:

public class PersonFieldBuilder implements FieldBuilder {
  private PersonFieldBuilder() {}
  public static final PersonFieldBuilder instance = new PersonFieldBuilder();

  // Renders a `Person` as an object field.
  public Field keyValue(String fieldName, Person p) {
    return keyValue(fieldName, personValue(p));

  public Value<?> personValue(Person p) {
    if (p == null) {
      return Value.nullValue();
    Field name = string("name", p.name());
    Field age = number("age", p.age());
    // optional returns either an object value or null value, keyValue is untyped
    Field father = keyValue("father", Value.optional(p.getFather().map(this::personValue)));
    Field mother = keyValue("mother", Value.optional(p.getMother().map(this::personValue)));
    Field interests = array("interests", p.interests());
    return Value.object(name, age, father, mother, interests);

And then you can do the same by calling fb.keyValue with Person:

Person user = ...
Logger<PersonFieldBuilder> personLogger = basicLogger.withFieldBuilder(PersonFieldBuilder.instance);
personLogger.info("Person {}", fb -> fb.keyValue("user", user));

Diff Field Builder

Once you have a custom field builder, you can layer in additional functionality like the "diff" field builder.

The "diff" field builder is useful for debugging a change in state in complex objects because it can compare "before" and "after" objects and only render the changes between the two values, using RFC 6902 format with zjsonpatch.

To add the diff field builder, add the diff module:

implementation "com.tersesystems.echopraxia:diff:<VERSION>"

And implement DiffFieldBuilder:

import com.tersesystems.echopraxia.diff.DiffFieldBuilder;

class PersonFieldBuilder implements DiffFieldBuilder {
  // ...
  public FieldBuilderResult diff(String name, Person before, Person after) {
    return diff(name, personValue(before), personValue(after));

You can then compare a change in an object by rendering the diff:

Logger<PersonFieldBuilder> logger = LoggerFactory.getLogger().withFieldBuilder(PersonFieldBuilder.instance);

Person before = new Person("Jim", 1);
Person after = before.withName("Will");

logger.info("{}", fb -> fb.diff("personDiff", before, after));

The diff field builder depends on Jackson 2.13, and will use a static object mapper by default, which you can override using the _objectMapper method.

Custom Logger Factories

If you are using a particular set of field builders for your domain and want them available by default, it's easy to create your own logger with your own field builder, using the support classes and interfaces.

Creating your own logger will also remove the type parameter from your code, so you don't have to type Logger<?> everywhere, and allow you to create custom methods that leverage field builders.

If you want to make sure your logger is the only one available, you should import only the API:




implementation "com.tersesystems.echopraxia:api:<VERSION>" 

And then continuing on from the custom field builder example, you can build a PersonLogger:

import com.tersesystems.echopraxia.api.*;

public final class PersonLogger extends AbstractLoggerSupport<PersonLogger, PersonFieldBuilder>
  implements DefaultLoggerMethods<PersonFieldBuilder> {
  private static final String FQCN = PersonLogger.class.getName();

  protected PersonLogger(
    @NotNull CoreLogger core, @NotNull PersonFieldBuilder fieldBuilder, Class<?> selfType) {
    super(core, fieldBuilder, selfType);

  public void info(@Nullable String message, Person person) {
    // when using custom methods, you must specify the caller as the class it's defined in.
    this.core().withFQCN(FQCN).log(Level.INFO, message,
      fb -> fb.person("person", person), fieldBuilder);

  protected @NotNull PersonLogger newLogger(CoreLogger core) {
    return new PersonLogger(core, fieldBuilder(), PersonLogger.class);

  protected @NotNull PersonLogger neverLogger() {
    return new PersonLogger(
      core.withCondition(Condition.never()), fieldBuilder(), PersonLogger.class);

and a custom logger factory:

public final class PersonLoggerFactory {

  private static final PersonFieldBuilder myFieldBuilder = PersonFieldBuilder.instance;

  // the class containing the error/warn/info/debug/trace methods
  private static final String FQCN = DefaultLoggerMethods.class.getName();

  public static PersonLogger getLogger(Class<?> clazz) {
    return getLogger(CoreLoggerFactory.getLogger(FQCN, clazz.getName()));

  public static PersonLogger getLogger(String name) {
    return getLogger(CoreLoggerFactory.getLogger(FQCN, name));

  public static PersonLogger getLogger() {
    return getLogger(CoreLoggerFactory.getLogger(FQCN, Caller.resolveClassName()));

  public static PersonLogger getLogger(@NotNull CoreLogger core) {
    return new PersonLogger(core, myFieldBuilder, PersonLogger.class);

and then you can log a person as a raw parameter:

PersonLogger logger = PersonLoggerFactory.getLogger();
Person abe = ...
logger.info("Best person: {}", abe);

Generally loggers should be final, and any common functionality should be moved out to interfaces you can share. This is because subclassing can have an impact on JVM optimizations, and can make returning specific types from with* methods more complicated.

Nulls and Exceptions

By default, values are @NotNull, and passing in null to values is not recommended. If you want to handle nulls, you can extend the field builder as necessary:

public interface NullableFieldBuilder extends FieldBuilder {
  // extend as necessary
  default Field nullableString(String name, String nullableString) {
    Value<?> nullableValue = (value == null) ? Value.nullValue() : Value.string(nullableString);
    return keyValue(name, nullableValue);

Field names are never allowed to be null. If a field name is null, it will be replaced at runtime with unknown-echopraxia-N where N is an incrementing number.

logger.info("Message name {}", fb -> 
  fb.string(null, "some-value") // null field names not allowed

Because a field builder function runs in a closure, if an exception occurs it will be caught by the default thread exception handler. If it's the main thread, it will print to console and terminate the JVM, but other threads will swallow the exception whole. Consider setting a default thread exception handler that additionally logs, and avoid uncaught exceptions in field builder closures:

logger.info("Message name {}", fb -> {
  String name = methodThatThrowsException(); // BAD
  return fb.string(name, "some-value");

Instead, only call field builder methods inside the closure and keep any construction logic outside:

String name = methodThatThrowsException(); // GOOD
logger.info("Message name {}", fb -> {
  return fb.string(name, "some-value");


You can also add fields directly to the logger using logger.withFields for contextual logging:

Logger<?> loggerWithFoo = basicLogger.withFields(fb -> fb.string("foo", "bar"));

// will log "foo": "bar" field in a JSON appender.
loggerWithFoo.info("JSON field will log automatically") 

This works very well for HTTP session and request data such as correlation ids.

One thing to be aware of that the popular idiom of using public static final Logger<?> logger can be limiting in cases where you want to include context data. For example, if you have a number of objects with their own internal state, it may be more appropriate to create a logger field on the object.

public class PlayerData {

  // the date is scoped to an instance of this player
  private Date lastAccessedDate = new Date();

  // logger is not static because lastAccessedDate is an instance variable
  private final Logger<BuilderWithDate> logger =
          .withFields(fb -> fb.date("last_accessed_date", lastAccessedDate));


Because values may be tied to state or variables that can change between method calls, the function call made by withFields is call by name i.e. the function is called on every logging statement for evaluation against any conditions and the logging statement will contain whatever the current value of lastAccessedDate at evaluation.

It's important to note that context evaluation only happens after enabled checks. For example, isInfoEnabled will not trigger context evaluation by itself. However, any implementation specific markers attached to the context will be passed in for the enabled check, as both Logback and Log4J incorporate marker checks in isEnabled.

// will not evaluate context fields
// will evaluate any impl-specific markers (Logback or Log4J)
boolean enabled = logger.isInfoEnabled();

The way that context works in conjunction with conditions is more involved, and is covered in the conditions section.

Thread Context

You can also resolve any fields in Mapped Diagnostic Context (MDC) into fields, using logger.withThreadContext(). This method provides a pre-built function that calls fb.string for each entry in the map.

Because MDC is thread local, if you pass the logger between threads or use asynchronous processing i.e. CompletionStage/CompletableFuture, you may have inconsistent results.

org.slf4j.MDC.put("mdckey", "mdcvalue");
myLogger.withThreadContext().info("This statement has MDC values in context");

This method is call by name, and so will provide the MDC state as fields at the time the logging statement is evaluated.

Thread Safety

Thread safety is something to be aware of when using context fields. While fields are thread-safe and using a context is far more convenient than using MDC, you do still have to be aware when you are accessing non-thread safe state.

For example, SimpleDateFormat is infamously not thread-safe, and so the following code is not safe to use in a multi-threaded context:

private final static DateFormat df = new SimpleDateFormat("yyyyMMdd");

private static final Logger<?> logger =
        .withFields(fb -> fb.string("unsafe_date", df.format(new Date())));


Logging conditions can be handled gracefully using Condition functions. A Condition will take a Level and a LoggingContext which will return the fields of the logger.

final Condition errorCondition = new Condition() {
  public boolean test(Level level, LoggingContext context) {
    return level.equals(Level.ERROR);

Conditions can be used either on the logger, on the statement, or against the predicate check.

There are two elemental conditions, Condition.always() and Condition.never(). Echopraxia has optimizations for conditions; it will treat Condition.always() as a no-op, and return a NeverLogger that has no operations for logging. The JVM can recognize that logging has no effect at all, and will eliminate the method call as dead code.

Conditions are a great way to manage diagnostic logging in your application with more flexibility than global log levels can provide. Consider enabling setting your application logging to DEBUG i.e. <logger name="your.application.package" level="DEBUG"/> and using conditions to turn on and off debugging as needed. Conditions come with and, or, and xor functionality, and can provide more precise and expressive logging criteria than can be managed with filters and markers. This is particularly useful when combined with filters.

For example, if you want to have logging that only activates during business hours, you can use the following:

import com.tersesystems.echopraxia.Condition;

public class MyBusinessConditions {
  private static final Clock officeClock = Clock.system(ZoneId.of("America/Los_Angeles")) ;

  public Condition businessHoursOnly() {
    return Condition.operational().and(weekdays().and(from9to5()));

  public Condition weekdays() {
    return (level, context) -> {
      LocalDate now = LocalDate.now(officeClock);
      final DayOfWeek dayOfWeek = now.getDayOfWeek();
      return ! (dayOfWeek.equals(DayOfWeek.SATURDAY) || dayOfWeek.equals(DayOfWeek.SUNDAY));

  public Condition from9to5() {
    return (level, context) -> LocalTime.now(officeClock).query(temporal -> {
      // hour is zero based, so adjust for readability
      final int hour = temporal.get(ChronoField.HOUR_OF_DAY) + 1;
      return (hour >= 9) && (hour <= 17); // 8 am to 5 pm

Matching values is best done using Value.equals in conjunction with one of the match methods:

// Better type safety using Value.equals
Condition hasDerp = Condition.stringMatch("herp", v -> Value.equals(v, Value.string("herp")))

// this works too
Condition logins = Condition.numberMatch("logins", v -> v.equals(number(1)));

This is only a part of the available functionality in conditions. You can tie conditions directly to a backend, such as a database or key/value store, or trigger them to work in response to an exception or unusual metrics. See the redis example, jmx example, metrics example, and timed diagnostic example.


In situations where you're looking through fields for a condition, you can use JSONPath to find values from the logging context in a condition.

Tip: You can integrate IntelliJ IDEA with JSONPath using the inject language settings page and adding LoggingContext.

The context.find* methods take a class as a type, and a JSON path, which can be used to search through context fields (or arguments, if the condition is used in a logging statement).

The basic types are String, the Number subclasses such as Integer, and Boolean. If no matching path is found, an empty Optional is returned.

Optional<String> optName = context.findString("$.person.name");

This also applies to Throwable which are usually passed in as arguments:

Optional<Throwable> optThrowable = context.findThrowable();

You can treat a Throwable as a JSON object, i.e. the following will all work with the default $.exception path:

Optional<String> className = ctx.findString("$.exception.className");
Optional<String> message = ctx.findString("$.exception.message");
Optional<Throwable> cause = ctx.findThrowable("$.exception.cause");

And you can also query stack trace elements:

Optional<Map<String, ?>> stacktraceElement = ctx.findObject("$.exception.stackTrace[0]")
Optional<String> methodName = ctx.findString("$.exception.stackTrace[0].methodName");
Optional<List<?>> listOfElements = ctx.findObject("$.exception.stackTrace[5..10]")

Finding an explicitly null value returns a boolean:

// fb.nullValue("keyWithNullValue") sets an explicitly null value
boolean isNull = context.findNull("$.keyWithNullValue");

Finding an object will return a Map:

Optional<Map<String, ?>> mother = context.findObject("$.person.mother");

For a List, in the case of an array value or when using indefinite queries:

List<String> interests = context.findList("$.person.mother.interests");

You can use inline predicates, which will return a List of the results:

final Condition cheapBookCondition =
  (level, context) -> ! context.findList("$.store.book[?(@.price < 10)]").isEmpty();

The inline and filter predicates are not available for exceptions. Instead, you must use filter:

class FindException {
  void logException() {
    Condition throwableCondition =
      (level, ctx) ->
          .filter(e -> "test message".equals(e.getMessage()))

    logger.error(throwableCondition, "Error message", new RuntimeException("test message"));

There are many more options available using JSONPath. You can try out the online evaluator to test out expressions.


You can use conditions in a logger, and statements will only log if the condition is met:

Logger<?> loggerWithCondition = logger.withCondition(condition);

You can also build up conditions:

Logger<?> loggerWithAandB = logger.withCondition(conditionA).withCondition(conditionB);

Conditions are only evaluated once a level/marker check is passed, so something like

loggerWithAandB.trace("some message");

will short circuit on the level check before any condition is reached.

Conditions look for fields, but those fields can come from either context or argument. For example, the following condition will log because the condition finds an argument field:

Condition cond = (level, ctx) -> ctx.findString("somename").isPresent();
logger.withCondition(cond).info("some message", fb -> fb.string("somename", "somevalue")); // matches argument


You can also use conditions in an individual statement:

logger.info(mustHaveFoo, "Only log if foo is present");


Conditions can also be used in predicate blocks for expensive objects.

if (logger.isInfoEnabled(condition)) {
  // only true if condition and is info  

Conditions will only be checked after an isEnabled check is passed -- the level (and optional marker) is always checked first, before any conditions.

A condition may also evaluate context fields that are set in a logger:

// Conditions may evaluate context
Condition cond = (level, ctx) -> ctx.findString("somename").isPresent();
boolean loggerEnabled = logger
  .withFields(fb -> fb.string("somename", "somevalue"))

Using a predicate with a condition does not trigger any logging, so it can be a nice way to "dry run" a condition. Note that the context evaluation takes place every time a condition is run, so doing something like this is not good:

Logger<?> loggerWithContextAndCondition =  logger
  .withFields(fb -> fb.string("somename", "somevalue"))

// check evaluates context
if (loggerWithContextAndCondition.isInfoEnabled()) {
  // info statement _also_ evaluates context
  loggerWithContextAndCondition.info("some message");

This results in the context being evaluated both in the block and in the info statement itself, which is inefficient.

It is generally preferable to pass in a condition explicitly on the statement, as it will only evaluate once.

Logger<?> loggerWithContext = logger
  .withFields(fb -> fb.string("somename", "somevalue"))
loggerWithContext.info(condition, "message");

or just on the statement.

loggerWithContextAndCondition.info("some message");

Asynchronous Logging

By default, conditions are evaluated in the running thread. This can be a problem if conditions rely on external elements such as network calls or database lookups, or involve resources with locks.

Echopraxia provides an AsyncLogger that will evaluate conditions and log using another executor, so that the main business logic thread is not blocked on execution. All statements are placed on a work queue and run on a thread specified by the executor at a later time.





implementation "com.tersesystems.echopraxia:async:<VERSION>" 


All the usual logging statements are available in AsyncLogger, i.e. logger.debug will log as usual.

However, there are no isLogging* methods in the AsyncLogger. Instead, a Consumer of LoggerHandle is used, which serves the same purpose as the if (isLogging*()) { .. } block.

import com.tersesystems.echopraxia.async.*;

AsyncLogger<?> logger = AsyncLoggerFactory.getLogger().withExecutor(loggingExecutor);
logger.info(handle -> {
  // do conditional logic that would normally happen in an if block
  // this may be expensive or blocking because it runs asynchronously
  handle.log("Message template {}", fb -> fb.string("foo", "bar");

In the unfortunate event of an exception, the underlying logger will be called at error level from the relevant core logger:

// only happens if uncaught exception from consumer
slf4jLogger.error("Uncaught exception when running asyncLog", cause);

One important detail is that the logging executor should be a daemon thread, so that it does not block JVM exit:

private static final Executor loggingExecutor =
      r -> {
        Thread t = new Thread(r);
        t.setDaemon(true); // daemon means the thread won't stop JVM from exiting
        return t;

Using a single thread executor is nice because you can keep ordering of your logging statements, but it may not scale up in production. Generally speaking, if you are CPU bound and want to distribute load over several cores, you should use ForkJoinPool.commonPool() or a bounded fork-join work stealing pool as your executor. If your conditions involve blocking, or work is IO bound, you should configure a thread pool executor.

Likewise, if your conditions involve calls to external services (for example, calling Consul or a remote HTTP service), you should consider using a failure handling library like failsafe to set up appropriate circuit breakers, bulkheads, timeouts, and rate limiters to manage interactions.

Because of parallelism and concurrency, your logging statements may not appear in order if you have multiple threads running in your executor. You can add extra fields to ensure you can reorder statements appropriately.

Putting it all together:

public class Async {
  private static final ExecutorService loggingExecutor =
          r -> {
            Thread t = new Thread(r);
            t.setDaemon(true); // daemon means the thread won't stop JVM from exiting
            return t;

  private static final Condition expensiveCondition = new Condition() {
    public boolean test(Level level, LoggingContext context) {
      try {
        return true;
      } catch (InterruptedException e) {
        return false;

  private static final AsyncLogger<?> logger = AsyncLoggerFactory.getLogger()

  public static void main(String[] args) throws InterruptedException {
    System.out.println("BEFORE logging block");
    for (int i = 0; i < 10; i++) {
      // This should take no time on the rendering thread :-)
      logger.info("Prints out after expensive condition");
    System.out.println("AFTER logging block");
    System.out.println("Sleeping so that the JVM stays up");
    Thread.sleep(1001L * 10L);

Please see the async example for more details.

Managing Thread Local State

Note that because logging is asynchronous, you must be very careful when accessing thread local state. Thread local state associated with logging, i.e. MDC / ThreadContext is automatically carried through, but in some cases you may need to do additional work.

For example, if you are using Spring Boot and are using RequestContextHolder.getRequestAttributes() when constructing context fields, you must call RequestContextHolder.setRequestAttributes(requestAttributes) so that the attributes are available to the thread.

You can add hooks into the logger to get and set thread local state appropriately using the withThreadLocal method, which returns a Supplier<Runnable>, where the Supplier is the "get" and the Runnable is the "set". For example, in the echopraxia-spring-boot-example, request attributes are thread local and must be carried across to the logging executor:

class GreetingController {
  private static final AsyncLogger<?> asyncLogger =
        () -> {
          // get the request attributes in rendering thread...
          final RequestAttributes requestAttributes =
          // ...and the "set" in the runnable will be called in the logging executor's thread
          return () -> RequestContextHolder.setRequestAttributes(requestAttributes);
      .withFields(fb -> fb.requestFields(httpServletRequest()));

  private HttpServletRequest httpServletRequest() {
    return ((ServletRequestAttributes) RequestContextHolder.getRequestAttributes())

You can call withThreadLocal multiple times, and it will compose with earlier blocks.

Managing Caller Info

Caller information -- the caller class, method, and line number -- is typically implemented in frameworks by processing a stacktrace. This is a problem for asynchronous logging, because the caller information is in a different castlethread.

Echopraxia can fix this by capturing the caller information just before starting the async thread, but it must do so on request. Crucially, although the throwable is created, the processing of stack trace elements still happens on the executor thread, ameliorating the cost of caller information.

You must specifically configure the implementation to capture async caller data.


For Log4J, you must set includeLocation=true on the logger you want to capture caller data, and configure the appender to render caller data:

<Configuration packages="...">
    <Console name="Console" target="SYSTEM_OUT">
        <!-- must have location info enabled to get caller data -->


    <!-- Must set includeLocation=true specifically for async caller info -->
    <Root level="debug" includeLocation="true">
      <AppenderRef ref="Console"/>


Logback is a little more complicated, because there is no direct way to get the logging event from a logger. Instead, a special caller marker is added, and an appender is used to extract caller data from the marker and set it on the event,

To enable it, you must set the context property echopraxia.async.caller to true, and wrap your appenders with com.tersesystems.echopraxia.logback.CallerDataAppender:


    <property scope="context" name="echopraxia.async.caller" value="true"/>

    <!-- loosen the rule so appenders use appender-refs -->
    <newRule pattern="*/appender/appender-ref"

    <appender name="CONSOLE" class="ch.qos.logback.core.ConsoleAppender">
        <!-- https://logback.qos.ch/manual/layouts.html#caller -->
            <pattern>%date{H:mm:ss.SSS} %highlight(%-5level) [%thread]: %message%n%ex%caller{2}</pattern>

    <appender name="JSON" class="net.logstash.logback.appender.LoggingEventAsyncDisruptorAppender">
      <appender class="ch.qos.logback.core.FileAppender">
        <!-- Or https://github.com/logfellow/logstash-logback-encoder#caller-info-fields -->
        <encoder class="net.logstash.logback.encoder.LoggingEventCompositeJsonEncoder">
            <!-- must add caller data to see method / line info in json -->

    <root level="INFO">
           CallerDataAppender sets the caller data on event from marker.
           Note this depends on setting the newRule above!
        <appender class="com.tersesystems.echopraxia.logback.CallerDataAppender">
            <appender-ref ref="CONSOLE"/>
            <appender-ref ref="JSON"/>

Dynamic Conditions with Scripts

One of the limitations of logging is that it's not that easy to change logging levels in an application at run-time. In modern applications, you typically have complex inputs and may want to enable logging for some very specific inputs without turning on your logging globally.

Script Conditions lets you tie your conditions to scripts that you can change and re-evaluate at runtime.

The security concerns surrounding Groovy or Javascript make them unsuitable in a logging environment. Fortunately, Echopraxia provides a Tweakflow script integration that lets you evaluate logging statements safely.

Tweakflow comes with a VS Code integration, a reference guide, and a standard library that contains useful regular expression and date manipulation logic.

Script Syntax

The call site for a script is the function evaluate inside a library called echopraxia. The level and context are passed through as (string level, dict ctx), where ctx is a dictionary of functions that connect back to the logging context.

Methods in the context are snake case, separated by underscores. For example, to call the equivalent of ctx.findString("$.person.name"), you would call ctx[:find_string]("$.person.name"). You can use the let construct in Tweakflow to make this clearer:

library echopraxia {
  function evaluate: (string level, dict ctx) ->
    let {
      find_string: ctx[:find_string];
    find_string("$.person.name") == "testing";

You can get access to the raw fields of the logging context with ctx[:fields], although this will iterate over every field and is less efficient than using the find functions:

library echopraxia {
  function evaluate: (string level, dict ctx) ->
    let {
      fields: ctx[:fields]();
    fields[:name] = "Will";

Using find_object or find_list returns the appropriate type of dict or list respectively.

library echopraxia {
  function evaluate: (string level, dict ctx) ->
    let {
      find_list: ctx[:find_list];
      interests: find_list("$.obj.interests");
    interests[1] == "drink";

And you can use the Tweakflow standard library to allow for more advanced functionality, i.e.

import * as std from "std";
alias std.strings as str;
library echopraxia {
  function evaluate: (string level, dict ctx) ->
    let {
      find_string: ctx[:find_string];
    str.lower_case(find_string("$.person.name")) == "will";

Creating Script Conditions

The simplest way to handle a script is to pass it in directly as a string:

import com.tersesystems.echopraxia.scripting.*;

StringBuilder b = new StringBuilder("");
b.append("library echopraxia {");
b.append("  function evaluate: (string level, dict ctx) ->");
b.append("    level == \"info\";");
String scriptString = b.toString();  
Condition c = ScriptCondition.create(false, scriptString, Throwable::printStackTrace);

You can also use a Path for file based scripts:

import com.tersesystems.echopraxia.scripting.*;

Path path = Paths.get("src/test/tweakflow/condition.tf");
Condition condition = ScriptCondition.create(false, path, Throwable::printStackTrace);

Logger<?> logger = LoggerFactory.getLogger(getClass()).withCondition(condition);

Where condition.tf contains a tweakflow script, e.g.

import * as std from "std";
alias std.strings as str;

library echopraxia {
  # level: the logging level
  # ctx: the logging context
  function evaluate: (string level, dict ctx) ->
      let find_string: ctx[:find_string]
    str.lower_case(find_string("$.person.name")) == "will";   

You also have the option to store scripts in a key-value store or in a database. See the sqlite condition store example for details.

Watched Scripts

You can change file based scripts while the application is running, if they are in a directory watched by ScriptWatchService.

To configure ScriptWatchService, pass it the directory that contains your script files:

final Path watchedDir = Paths.get("/your/script/directory");
ScriptWatchService watchService = new ScriptWatchService(watchedDir);

Path filePath = watchedDir.resolve("myscript.tf");

Logger logger = LoggerFactory.getLogger();

final ScriptHandle watchedHandle = watchService.watchScript(filePath, 
        e -> logger.error("Script compilation error", e));
final Condition condition = ScriptCondition.create(watchedHandle);

logger.info(condition, "Statement only logs if condition is met!")

// After that, you can edit myscript.tf and the condition will 
// re-evaluate the script as needed automatically!

// You can delete the file, but doing so will log a warning from `ScriptWatchService`
// Recreating a deleted file will trigger an evaluation, same as modification.

// Note that the watch service creates a daemon thread to watch the directory.
// To free up the thread and stop watching, you should call close() as appropriate:

Please see the scripting example for more details.


Because Scripting has a dependency on Tweakflow, it is broken out into a distinct library that you must add to your build.




implementation "com.tersesystems.echopraxia:scripting:<VERSION>" 

Semantic Logging

Semantic Loggers are strongly typed, and will only log a particular kind of argument. All the work of field building and setting up a message is done from setup.

Basic Usage

To set up a logger for a Person with name and age properties, you would do the following:

import com.tersesystems.echopraxia.semantic.*;

SemanticLogger<Person> logger =
        person -> "person.name = {}, person.age = {}",
        p -> fb -> fb.list(fb.string("name", p.name), fb.number("age", p.age)));

Person person = new Person("Eloise", 1);


Semantic loggers take conditions in the same way that other loggers do, either through predicate:

if (logger.isInfoEnabled(condition)) {

or directly on the method:

logger.info(condition, person);

or on the logger:



Semantic loggers can add fields to context in the same way other loggers do.

SemanticLogger<Person> loggerWithContext =
  logger.withFields(fb -> fb.string("some_context_field", contextValue));


Semantic Loggers have a dependency on the api module, but do not have any implementation dependencies.




implementation "com.tersesystems.echopraxia:semantic:<VERSION>" 

Fluent Logging

Fluent logging is done using a FluentLoggerFactory.

It is useful in situations where arguments may need to be built up over time.

import com.tersesystems.echopraxia.fluent.*;

FluentLogger<?> logger = FluentLoggerFactory.getLogger(getClass());

Person person = new Person("Eloise", 1);

    .message("name = {}, age = {}")
    .argument(fb -> fb.string("name", person.name))
    .argument(fb -> fb.number("age", person.age))


Fluent Loggers have a dependency on the api module, but do not have any implementation dependencies.




implementation "com.tersesystems.echopraxia:fluent:<VERSION>" 

Core Logger

Because Echopraxia provides its own implementation independent API, some implementation features are not exposed normally. If you want to use implementation specific features like markers, you will need to use a core logger.

Logstash API

First, import the logstash package. This gets you access to the CoreLoggerFactory and CoreLogger, which can be cast to LogstashCoreLogger:

import com.tersesystems.echopraxia.logstash.*;
import com.tersesystems.echopraxia.api.*;

LogstashCoreLogger core = (LogstashCoreLogger) CoreLoggerFactory.getLogger();

The LogstashCoreLogger has a withMarkers method that takes an SLF4J marker:

Logger<?> logger = LoggerFactory.getLogger(
      core.withMarkers(MarkerFactory.getMarker("SECURITY")), FieldBuilder.instance);

If you have markers set as context, you can evaluate them in a condition through casting to LogstashLoggingContext:

Condition hasAnyMarkers = (level, context) -> {
   LogstashLoggingContext c = (LogstashLoggingContext) context;
   List<org.slf4j.Marker> markers = c.getMarkers();
   return markers.size() > 0;

If you need to get at the SLF4J logger from a core logger, you can cast and call core.logger():

Logger<?> baseLogger = LoggerFactory.getLogger();
LogstashCoreLogger core = (LogstashCoreLogger) baseLogger.core();
org.slf4j.Logger slf4jLogger = core.logger();


Similar to Logstash, you can get access to Log4J specific features by importing

import com.tersesystems.echopraxia.log4j.*;
import com.tersesystems.echopraxia.api.*;

Log4JCoreLogger core = (Log4JCoreLogger) CoreLoggerFactory.getLogger();

The Log4JCoreLogger has a withMarker method that takes a Log4J marker:

final Marker securityMarker = MarkerManager.getMarker("SECURITY");
Logger<?> logger = LoggerFactory.getLogger(
      core.withMarker(securityMarker), FieldBuilder.instance);

If you have a marker set as context, you can evaluate it in a condition through casting to Log4JLoggingContext:

Condition hasAnyMarkers = (level, context) -> {
   Log4JLoggingContext c = (Log4JLoggingContext) context;
   Marker m = c.getMarker();
   return securityMarker.equals(m);

If you need to get the Log4j logger from a core logger, you can cast and call core.logger():

Logger<?> baseLogger = LoggerFactory.getLogger();
Log4JCoreLogger core = (Log4JCoreLogger) baseLogger.core();
org.apache.logging.log4j.Logger log4jLogger = core.logger();


There are times when you want to add a field or a condition to all loggers. Although you can wrap individual loggers or create your own wrapper around LoggerFactory, this can be a labor-intensive process that requires lots of code modification, and must be handled for fluent, semantic, async, and regular loggers.

Echopraxia includes filters that wrap around the CoreLogger returned by CoreLoggerFactory that provides the ability to modify the core logger from a single pipeline in the code.

For example, to add a uses_filter field to every Echopraxia logger:

package example;

import com.tersesystems.echopraxia.api.*;

public class ExampleFilter implements CoreLoggerFilter {
  public CoreLogger apply(CoreLogger coreLogger) {
    return coreLogger
        .withFields(fb -> fb.bool("uses_filter", true), FieldBuilder.instance());

Filters must extend the CoreLoggerFilter interface, and must have a no-args constructor.

Filters must have a fully qualified class name in the /echopraxia.properties file as a resource somewhere in your classpath. The format is filter.N where N is the order in which filters should be loaded.


Filters are particularly helpful when you need to provide "out of context" information for your conditions.

For example, imagine that you have a situation in which the program uses more CPU or memory than normal in production, but works fine in a staging environment. Using OSHI and a filter, you can provide the machine statistics and evaluate with dynamic conditions.

public class SystemInfoFilter implements CoreLoggerFilter {

  private final SystemInfo systemInfo;

  public SystemInfoFilter() {
     systemInfo = new SystemInfo();

  public CoreLogger apply(CoreLogger coreLogger) {
    HardwareAbstractionLayer hardware = systemInfo.getHardware();
    GlobalMemory mem = hardware.getMemory();
    CentralProcessor proc = hardware.getProcessor();
    double[] loadAverage = proc.getSystemLoadAverage(3);

    // Now you can add conditions based on these fields, and conditionally
    // enable logging based on your load and memory!
    return coreLogger.withFields(fb -> {
        Field loadField = fb.object("load_average", //
                fb.number("1min", loadAverage[0]), //
                fb.number("5min", loadAverage[1]), //
                fb.number("15min", loadAverage[2]));
        Field memField = fb.object("mem", //
                fb.number("available", mem.getAvailable()), //
                fb.number("total", mem.getTotal()));
        Field sysinfoField = fb.object("sysinfo", loadField, memField);
        return sysinfoField;
      }, FieldBuilder.instance());

Please see the system info example for details.

Direct Logback / SLF4J API

There will be times when the application uses an SLF4J logger, and it's not feasible to use an Echopraxia Logger. This is not a problem: you can pass Echopraxia fields directly as arguments through SLF4J, and they will be rendered as expected. You'll need to have a field builder in scope:

FieldBuilder fb = FieldBuilder.instance();
org.slf4j.Logger slf4jLogger = org.slf4j.LoggerFactory.getLogger("com.example.Main");
slf4jLogger.info("SLF4J message {}", fb.string("foo", "bar"));

You can pass arguments in either individually (do not use fb.list):

slf4jLogger.info("SLF4J message string {} number {}", fb.string("foo", "bar"), fb.number("count", 1));

Note that if you want to use exceptions in conditions, you pass exceptions through twice, once for the argument and again for the exception itself -- it must be the last argument, and must not have a message parameter to register as an exception (this is the SLF4J convention, it will eat exceptions otherwise):

Exception e = new RuntimeException();
slf4jLogger.error("SLF4J exception {}", fb.exception(e), e);

SLF4J has no direct support for conditions, but we can fake it with a ConditionMarker:

import com.tersesystems.echopraxia.logback.*;

Marker marker = ConditionMarker.apply(condition);
slf4jLogger.info(marker, "SLF4J message string {} number {}", fb.string("foo", "bar"), fb.number("count", 1));

You may want to represent session specific information as "logger context" field, which correspond to logstash markers. If you want to use a context field, you can wrap a field in FieldMarker and then pass it in directly or use Markers.aggregate with a condition:

FieldBuilder fb = FieldBuilder.instance();
FieldMarker fields = FieldMarker.apply(
    fb.string("sessionId", "value"), 
    fb.number("correlationId", 1)
ConditionMarker conditionMarker = ConditionMarker.apply(
  Condition.stringMatch("sessionId", s -> s.raw().equals("value")))

logger.info(Markers.aggregate(fieldMarker, conditionMarker), "condition and marker");

To integrate this with Logback, you will need to have a ConditionTurboFilter which will evaluate conditions wrapped in ConditionMarker, and a LogstashFieldAppender that turns the fields into logstash markers and structured arguments for use with LogstashEncoder (note that this directly mutates the logging event, so don't have multiple async appenders going on with this):

<configuration> <!-- logback.xml -->

    <!-- evaluates conditions -->
    <turboFilter class="com.tersesystems.echopraxia.logback.ConditionTurboFilter"/>

    <appender name="ASYNC_JSON" class="net.logstash.logback.appender.LoggingEventAsyncDisruptorAppender">
        <!-- replaces fields with logstash markers and structured arguments -->
        <appender class="com.tersesystems.echopraxia.logstash.LogstashFieldAppender">
            <appender class="ch.qos.logback.core.FileAppender">
                <encoder class="net.logstash.logback.encoder.LogstashEncoder"/>

    <root level="INFO">
        <appender-ref ref="ASYNC_JSON"/>

Direct Log4J API

In the event that the Log4J2 API must be used directly, an EchopraxiaFieldsMessage can be sent in for JSON rendering.

import com.tersesystems.echopraxia.api.FieldBuilder;
import com.tersesystems.echopraxia.api.FieldBuilderResult;
import com.tersesystems.echopraxia.log4j.layout.EchopraxiaFieldsMessage;
import org.apache.logging.log4j.LogManager;
import org.apache.logging.log4j.Logger;

FieldBuilder fb = FieldBuilder.instance();
Logger logger = LogManager.getLogger();
EchopraxiaFieldsMessage message = structured("echopraxia message {}", fb.string("foo", "bar"));

EchopraxiaFieldsMessage structured(String message, FieldBuilderResult args) {
  List<FIeld> loggerFields = Collections.emptyList();
  return new EchopraxiaFieldsMessage(message, loggerFields, result.fields());

Note that exceptions must also be passed outside the message to be fully processed by Log4J:

Exception e = new RuntimeException();
EchopraxiaFieldsMessage message = structured("exception {}", fb.exception(e));
logger.info(message, e);

Unfortunately, I don't understand Log4J internals well enough to make conditions work using the Log4J API. One option could be to write a Log4J Filter to work on a message.

*Note that all licence references and agreements mentioned in the Echopraxia README section above are relevant to that project's source code only.